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  #1  
Old 2003-12-03, 22:48
CS2x's Avatar
CS2x CS2x is offline
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the uLTimate animal threaD!1!11

Butterflies are beautiful, flying insects with large scaly
wings. Like all insects, they have six jointed legs, 3 body
parts, a pair of antennae, compound eyes, and an
exoskeleton. The three body parts are the head, thorax (the
chest), and abdomen (the tail end).

The butterfly's body is covered by tiny sensory hairs. The
four wings and the six legs of the butterfly are attached to
the thorax. The thorax contains the muscles that make the
legs and wings move.
Butterflies are very good fliers. They have two pairs of
large wings covered with colorful, iridescent scales in
overlapping rows. Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) are
the only insects that have scaly wings. The wings are
attached to the butterfly's thorax (mid-section). Veins
support the delicate wings and nourish them with blood.
Butterflies can only fly if their body temperature is above
86 degrees. Butterflies sun themselves to warm up in cool
weather. As butterflies age, the color of the wings fades
and the wings become ragged.

The speed varies among butterfly species (the poisonous
varieties are slower than non-poisonous varieties). The
fastest butterflies (some skippers) can fly at about 30 mile
per hour or faster. Slow flying butterflies fly about 5 mph.


Butterflies and moths undergo complete metamorphosis in
which they go through four different life stages.

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Remains of domesticated cattle dating to 6,500 B.C. have been found in Turkey and other sites in the Near East approach this age also. Some authorities date the domestication of cattle as early as 10,000 years ago, and others almost half that amount of time. Regardless of the time frame it is generally accepted that the domestication of cattle followed sheep, goats, pigs and dogs.

Modern domestic cattle evolved from a single early ancestor, the aurochs. In addition to prehistoric painting that help us identify the appearance of the auroch the species actually survived until relatively modern times. It is believed the last surviving member of the species was killed by a poacher in 1627 on a hunting reserve near Warsaw, Poland. The species may have survived in small number in other parts of the world until a later date but there is no evidence to support this theory.

Early cattle served a triple-purpose. They provided meat, milk and labor to their owners. Eventually their draft purposes were largely replaced by horses and much later by machinery so they were selected more for single or in some cases dual purposes.
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  #2  
Old 2003-12-03, 22:57
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"the uLTimate animal threaD!1!11" Hehe priceless

My favourite animals are bats. They are pretty much teh ulitmate.
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Old 2003-12-03, 23:13
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Sanitation.Sanitation. House, stable and blow flies may be pests of dairy cattle kept on lots. These flies (filth flies) breed in spilled feed, bedding, decaying organic matter and manure mixed with moisture, dirt and organic matter. Sanitation is the first and most important step in control of filth flies.
Sanitation. House, stable and blow flies may be pests of dairy cattle kept on lots. These flies (filth flies) breed in spilled feed, bedding, decaying organic matter and manure mixed with moisture, dirt and organic matter. Sanitation is the first and most important step in control of filth flies.

Clean cattle pens, drainage areas, loafing sheds, stalls, feeding aprons, spilled feed and other decaying organic matter at 10-day intervals to minimize fly breeding. If this decaying organic matter is spread on fields, spread it thin enough for rapid drying. The material can be spread in the lot and, when dry, incorporated into mounds or low spots within the lot.

Take care to prevent moisture penetration in manure stored for later distribution. The manure stack should be steep-sloped and, if possible, packed. Manure stored in silo-type storage units may crust on the top, but cracks allow flies to deposit eggs in wet material below the crust. Agitating and/or adding water may be necessary (fly larvae are drowned by adding water).

If conditions are too wet to take sanitation measures, insecticides (larvicides) can be used to treat fly-breeding areas. Consider this method a temporary measure since development of fly resistance to insecticides generally accelerates when control of the immature insect is practiced.

If cattle remain in dry lots, only house and blow flies and blood-feeding stable flies will be pests. If cattle go to pasture between milkings, they also may be attacked by horn and face flies (pastures flies). The horn fly is a small, blood-feeding fly that spends all its time on cattle. Face flies feed on animal secretions, primarily around the eyes and nose, but they do not spend much time on cattle.

Both pasture fly species breed in manure in the pasture. The numbers of flies developing in the manure can be decreased by clipping and dragging the pastures.

Insecticides. The best choice of insecticide and application method depends on the cattle management system and the fly species.

Control of filth flies is best achieved with sanitation and a combination of knockdown (also called space and area) sprays and residual sprays.

See EC 1550, Nebraska Management Guide for Arthropod Pests of Livestock and Horses, for specific insecticide information. Many insecticides used for livestock insect control are restricted for use in milking parlors and on lactating dairy cattle. This will be stated on the label and in the restriction section of EC 1550.

Knockdown sprays are applied by a mist blower, fogger or handgun set to deliver a fine mist. These sprays break down rapidly in the environment (1 to 2 hours) and should be applied to areas where flies are concentrated because the insecticide droplets kill flies on contact.

Knockdown sprays may be most efficient when fly activity in the pens is low. During the hot parts of the day both house flies and stable flies rest in trees and other vegetation around the pens. Keeping weeds mowed reduces the amount of shade available and restricts favorable fly habitat.

Knockdown sprays should be used the same day they are mixed because they lose effectiveness over time after being mixed. They should not be applied when air temperatures are below 65 F or above 90 F. Insecticides are not very active at low temperatures and considerable spray is lost to evaporation or inversions at high temperatures.

Residual sprays remain active for several days, and flies resting on a treated surface absorb enough insecticide to destroy them. Apply residual sprays to fly resting surfaces, such as walls and ceilings within the barn (unless prohibited on the label), loafing sheds and other surfaces on the outside of the milking barn. Residual sprays should be applied only to shaded fly resting areas, because ultraviolet light breaks them down if they are exposed to sun. Rain washes the residual sprays off treated surfaces, so they should be reapplied following a rain.

Knockdown and residual sprays can be alternated as needed throughout the fly season. The existing adult population can be reduced with a knockdown spray, and after about one week (time needed for newly emerged females to begin depositing eggs) a residual treatment can be applied.

Residual sprays cannot be used in the milking parlor. Only baits, such as Vapona no-pest strips (dichlorvos), pyrethrin mists and sticky flytraps can be used in the milking parlor.

At some dairies, the waste management (sanitation system) may be excellent except for the calf hutches. These may contribute enough stable and house flies to be an economic problem. Straw mixed with moisture, manure and urine is a very attractive breeding place for flies. Bedding should be removed from the hutches and walkways at least weekly to prevent fly breeding. Residual sprays can be applied to the inside and shady outside walls of the hutches for fly control.

Poison baits can aid in the control of house flies, but baits do not control stable flies or horn flies as they feed only on blood. Baits can be beneficial around calf hutches. Distribute dry baits along walls, window sills or other areas where flies congregate. Keep poison baits away from feed, water and milk. Make light applications and collect dead flies and all bait periodically.

Apply liquid baits to burlap bags, papers or other removable surfaces. After some time passes, organic phosphate insecticides used in liquid baits will decompose and only the sugar or syrup will be left to attract flies. Therefore, remove and replace liquid bait residues regularly. Most dry baits are available as prepared products.

Pasture fly numbers can be reduced with the use of sprays, ear tags, dust bags and oilers. Most ear tags currently registered for use on beef cattle also can be used on dairy cattle. If face flies are on the cattle, two ear tags per animal may be required because face flies concentrate on the face. Best results are achieved when cattle are forced to pass through low-hanging dust bags and oilers so their faces get treated.

None of these control methods are effective for controlling filth flies. House flies may never feed on cattle, and the stable fly feeds mainly on the lower front legs, an area not affected by pasture fly control methods.


Clean cattle pens, drainage areas, loafing sheds, stalls, feeding aprons, spilled feed and other decaying organic matter at 10-day intervals to minimize fly breeding. If this decaying organic matter is spread on fields, spread it thin enough for rapid drying. The material can be spread in the lot and, when dry, incorporated into mounds or low spots within the lot.

Take care to prevent moisture penetration in manure stored for later distribution. The manure stack should be steep-sloped and, if possible, packed. Manure stored in silo-type storage units may crust on the top, but cracks allow flies to deposit eggs in wet material below the crust. Agitating and/or adding water may be necessary (fly larvae are drowned by adding water).

If conditions are too wet to take sanitation measures, insecticides (larvicides) can be used to treat fly-breeding areas. Consider this method a temporary measure since development of fly resistance to insecticides generally accelerates when control of the immature insect is practiced.

If cattle remain in dry lots, only house and blow flies and blood-feeding stable flies will be pests. If cattle go to pasture between milkings, they also may be attacked by horn and face flies (pastures flies). The horn fly is a small, blood-feeding fly that spends all its time on cattle. Face flies feed on animal secretions, primarily around the eyes and nose, but they do not spend much time on cattle.

Both pasture fly species breed in manure in the pasture. The numbers of flies developing in the manure can be decreased by clipping and dragging the pastures.

Insecticides. The best choice of insecticide and application method depends on the cattle management system and the fly species.

Control of filth flies is best achieved with sanitation and a combination of knockdown (also called space and area) sprays and residual sprays.

See EC 1550, Nebraska Management Guide for Arthropod Pests of Livestock and Horses, for specific insecticide information. Many insecticides used for livestock insect control are restricted for use in milking parlors and on lactating dairy cattle. This will be stated on the label and in the restriction section of EC 1550.

Knockdown sprays are applied by a mist blower, fogger or handgun set to deliver a fine mist. These sprays break down rapidly in the environment (1 to 2 hours) and should be applied to areas where flies are concentrated because the insecticide droplets kill flies on contact.

Knockdown sprays may be most efficient when fly activity in the pens is low. During the hot parts of the day both house flies and stable flies rest in trees and other vegetation around the pens. Keeping weeds mowed reduces the amount of shade available and restricts favorable fly habitat.

Knockdown sprays should be used the same day they are mixed because they lose effectiveness over time after being mixed. They should not be applied when air temperatures are below 65 F or above 90 F. Insecticides are not very active at low temperatures and considerable spray is lost to evaporation or inversions at high temperatures.

Residual sprays remain active for several days, and flies resting on a treated surface absorb enough insecticide to destroy them. Apply residual sprays to fly resting surfaces, such as walls and ceilings within the barn (unless prohibited on the label), loafing sheds and other surfaces on the outside of the milking barn. Residual sprays should be applied only to shaded fly resting areas, because ultraviolet light breaks them down if they are exposed to sun. Rain washes the residual sprays off treated surfaces, so they should be reapplied following a rain.

Knockdown and residual sprays can be alternated as needed throughout the fly season. The existing adult population can be reduced with a knockdown spray, and after about one week (time needed for newly emerged females to begin depositing eggs) a residual treatment can be applied.

Residual sprays cannot be used in the milking parlor. Only baits, such as Vapona no-pest strips (dichlorvos), pyrethrin mists and sticky flytraps can be used in the milking parlor.

At some dairies, the waste management (sanitation system) may be excellent except for the calf hutches. These may contribute enough stable and house flies to be an economic problem. Straw mixed with moisture, manure and urine is a very attractive breeding place for flies. Bedding should be removed from the hutches and walkways at least weekly to prevent fly breeding. Residual sprays can be applied to the inside and shady outside walls of the hutches for fly control.

Poison baits can aid in the control of house flies, but baits do not control stable flies or horn flies as they feed only on blood. Baits can be beneficial around calf hutches. Distribute dry baits along walls, window sills or other areas where flies congregate. Keep poison baits away from feed, water and milk. Make light applications and collect dead flies and all bait periodically.

Apply liquid baits to burlap bags, papers or other removable surfaces. After some time passes, organic phosphate insecticides used in liquid baits will decompose and only the sugar or syrup will be left to attract flies. Therefore, remove and replace liquid bait residues regularly. Most dry baits are available as prepared products.

Pasture fly numbers can be reduced with the use of sprays, ear tags, dust bags and oilers. Most ear tags currently registered for use on beef cattle also can be used on dairy cattle. If face flies are on the cattle, two ear tags per animal may be required because face flies concentrate on the face. Best results are achieved when cattle are forced to pass through low-hanging dust bags and oilers so their faces get treated.

None of these control methods are effective for controlling filth flies. House flies may never feed on cattle, and the stable fly feeds mainly on the lower front legs, an area not affected by pasture fly control methods.

House, stable and blow flies may be pests of dairy cattle kept on lots. These flies (filth flies) breed in spilled feed, bedding, decaying organic matterSanitation. House, stable and blow flies may be pests of dairy cattle kept on lots. These flies (filth flies) breed in spilled feed, bedding, decaying organic matter and manure mixed with moisture, dirt and organic matter. Sanitation is the first and most important step in control of filth flies.

Clean cattle pens, drainage areas, loafing sheds, stalls, feeding aprons, spilled feed and other decaying organic matter at 10-day intervals to minimize fly breeding. If this decaying organic matter is spread on fields, spread it thin enough for rapid drying. The material can be spread in the lot and, when dry, incorporated into mounds or low spots within the lot.

Take care to prevent moisture penetration in manure stored for later distribution. The manure stack should be steep-sloped and, if possible, packed. Manure stored in silo-type storage units may crust on the top, but cracks allow flies to deposit eggs in wet material below the crust. Agitating and/or adding water may be necessary (fly larvae are drowned by adding water).

If conditions are too wet to take sanitation measures, insecticides (larvicides) can be used to treat fly-breeding areas. Consider this method a temporary measure since development of fly resistance to insecticides generally accelerates when control of the immature insect is practiced.

If cattle remain in dry lots, only house and blow flies and blood-feeding stable flies will be pests. If cattle go to pasture between milkings, they also may be attacked by horn and face flies (pastures flies). The horn fly is a small, blood-feeding fly that spends all its time on cattle. Face flies feed on animal secretions, primarily around the eyes and nose, but they do not spend much time on cattle.

Both pasture fly species breed in manure in the pasture. The numbers of flies developing in the manure can be decreased by clipping and dragging the pastures.

Insecticides. The best choice of insecticide and application method depends on the cattle management system and the fly species.

Control of filth flies is best achieved with sanitation and a combination of knockdown (also called space and area) sprays and residual sprays.

See EC 1550, Nebraska Management Guide for Arthropod Pests of Livestock and Horses, for specific insecticide information. Many insecticides used for livestock insect control are restricted for use in milking parlors and on lactating dairy cattle. This will be stated on the label and in the restriction section of EC 1550.

Knockdown sprays are applied by a mist blower, fogger or handgun set to deliver a fine mist. These sprays break down rapidly in the environment (1 to 2 hours) and should be applied to areas where flies are concentrated because the insecticide droplets kill flies on contact.

Knockdown sprays may be most efficient when fly activity in the pens is low. During the hot parts of the day both house flies and stable flies rest in trees and other vegetation around the pens. Keeping weeds mowed reduces the amount of shade available and restricts favorable fly habitat.

Knockdown sprays should be used the same day they are mixed because they lose effectiveness over time after being mixed. They should not be applied when air temperatures are below 65 F or above 90 F. Insecticides are not very active at low temperatures and considerable spray is lost to evaporation or inversions at high temperatures.

Residual sprays remain active for several days, and flies resting on a treated surface absorb enough insecticide to destroy them. Apply residual sprays to fly resting surfaces, such as walls and ceilings within the barn (unless prohibited on the label), loafing sheds and other surfaces on the outside of the milking barn. Residual sprays should be applied only to shaded fly resting areas, because ultraviolet light breaks them down if they are exposed to sun. Rain washes the residual sprays off treated surfaces, so they should be reapplied following a rain.

Knockdown and residual sprays can be alternated as needed throughout the fly season. The existing adult population can be reduced with a knockdown spray, and after about one week (time needed for newly emerged females to begin depositing eggs) a residual treatment can be applied.

Residual sprays cannot be used in the milking parlor. Only baits, such as Vapona no-pest strips (dichlorvos), pyrethrin mists and sticky flytraps can be used in the milking parlor.

At some dairies, the waste management (sanitation system) may be excellent except for the calf hutches. These may contribute enough stable and house flies to be an economic problem. Straw mixed with moisture, manure and urine is a very attractive breeding place for flies. Bedding should be removed from the hutches and walkways at least weekly to prevent fly breeding. Residual sprays can be applied to the inside and shady outside walls of the hutches for fly control.

Poison baits can aid in the control of house flies, but baits do not control stable flies or horn flies as they feed only on blood. Baits can be beneficial around calf hutches. Distribute dry baits along walls, window sills or other areas where flies congregate. Keep poison baits away from feed, water and milk. Make light applications and collect dead flies and all bait periodically.

Apply liquid baits to burlap bags, papers or other removable surfaces. After some time passes, organic phosphate insecticides used in liquid baits will decompose and only the sugar or syrup will be left to attract flies. Therefore, remove and replace liquid bait residues regularly. Most dry baits are available as prepared products.

Pasture fly numbers can be reduced with the use of sprays, ear tags, dust bags and oilers. Most ear tags currently registered for use on beef cattle also can be used on dairy cattle. If face flies are on the cattle, two ear tags per animal may be required because face flies concentrate on the face. Best results are achieved when cattle are forced to pass through low-hanging dust bags and oilers so their faces get treated.

None of these control methods are effective for controlling filth flies. House flies may never feed on cattle, and the stable fly feeds mainly on the lower front legs, an area not affected by pasture fly control methods.

and manure mixed with moisture, dirt and organic mSanitation. House, stable and blow flies may be pests of dairy cattle kept on lots. These flies (filth flies) breed in spilled feed, bedding, decaying organic matter and manure mixed with moisture, dirt and organic matter. Sanitation is the first and most important step in control of filth flies.

Clean cattle pens, drainage areas, loafing sheds, stalls, feeding aprons, spilled feed and other decaying organic matter at 10-day intervals to minimize fly breeding. If this decaying organic matter is spread on fields, spread it thin enough for rapid drying. The material can be spread in the lot and, when dry, incorporated into mounds or low spots within the lot.

Take care to prevent moisture penetration in manure stored for later distribution. The manure stack should be steep-sloped and, if possible, packed. Manure stored in silo-type storage units may crust on the top, but cracks allow flies to deposit eggs in wet material below the crust. Agitating and/or adding water may be necessary (fly larvae are drowned by adding water).

If conditions are too wet to take sanitation measures, insecticides (larvicides) can be used to treat fly-breeding areas. Consider this method a temporary measure since development of fly resistance to insecticides generally accelerates when control of the immature insect is practiced.

If cattle remain in dry lots, only house and blow flies and blood-feeding stable flies will be pests. If cattle go to pasture between milkings, they also may be attacked by horn and face flies (pastures flies). The horn fly is a small, blood-feeding fly that spends all its time on cattle. Face flies feed on animal secretions, primarily around the eyes and nose, but they do not spend much time on cattle.

Both pasture fly species breed in manure in the pasture. The numbers of flies developing in the manure can be decreased by clipping and dragging the pastures.

Insecticides. The best choice of insecticide and application method depends on the cattle management system and the fly species.

Control of filth flies is best achieved with sanitation and a combination of knockdown (also called space and area) sprays and residual sprays.

See EC 1550, Nebraska Management Guide for Arthropod Pests of Livestock and Horses, for specific insecticide information. Many insecticides used for livestock insect control are restricted for use in milking parlors and on lactating dairy cattle. This will be stated on the label and in the restriction section of EC 1550.

Knockdown sprays are applied by a mist blower, fogger or handgun set to deliver a fine mist. These sprays break down rapidly in the environment (1 to 2 hours) and should be applied to areas where flies are concentrated because the insecticide droplets kill flies on contact.

Knockdown sprays may be most efficient when fly activity in the pens is low. During the hot parts of the day both house flies and stable flies rest in trees and other vegetation around the pens. Keeping weeds mowed reduces the amount of shade available and restricts favorable fly habitat.

Knockdown sprays should be used the same day they are mixed because they lose effectiveness over time after being mixed. They should not be applied when air temperatures are below 65 F or above 90 F. Insecticides are not very active at low temperatures and considerable spray is lost to evaporation or inversions at high temperatures.

Residual sprays remain active for several days, and flies resting on a treated surface absorb enough insecticide to destroy them. Apply residual sprays to fly resting surfaces, such as walls and ceilings within the barn (unless prohibited on the label), loafing sheds and other surfaces on the outside of the milking barn. Residual sprays should be applied only to shaded fly resting areas, because ultraviolet light breaks them down if they are exposed to sun. Rain washes the residual sprays off treated surfaces, so they should be reapplied following a rain.

Knockdown and residual sprays can be alternated as needed throughout the fly season. The existing adult population can be reduced with a knockdown spray, and after about one week (time needed for newly emerged females to begin depositing eggs) a residual treatment can be applied.

Residual sprays cannot be used in the milking parlor. Only baits, such as Vapona no-pest strips (dichlorvos), pyrethrin mists and sticky flytraps can be used in the milking parlor.

At some dairies, the waste management (sanitation system) may be excellent except for the calf hutches. These may contribute enough stable and house flies to be an economic problem. Straw mixed with moisture, manure and urine is a very attractive breeding place for flies. Bedding should be removed from the hutches and walkways at least weekly to prevent fly breeding. Residual sprays can be applied to the inside and shady outside walls of the hutches for fly control.

Poison baits can aid in the control of house flies, but baits do not control stable flies or horn flies as they feed only on blood. Baits can be beneficial around calf hutches. Distribute dry baits along walls, window sills or other areas where flies congregate. Keep poison baits away from feed, water and milk. Make light applications and collect dead flies and all bait periodically.

Apply liquid baits to burlap bags, papers or other removable surfaces. After some time passes, organic phosphate insecticides used in liquid baits will decompose and only the sugar or syrup will be left to attract flies. Therefore, remove and replace liquid bait residues regularly. Most dry baits are available as prepared products.

Pasture fly numbers can be reduced with the use of sprays, ear tags, dust bags and oilers. Most ear tags currently registered for use on beef cattle also can be used on dairy cattle. If face flies are on the cattle, two ear tags per animal may be required because face flies concentrate on the face. Best results are achieved when cattle are forced to pass through low-hanging dust bags and oilers so their faces get treated.

None of these control methods are effective for controlling filth flies. House flies may never feed on cattle, and the stable fly feeds mainly on the lower front legs, an area not affected by pasture fly control methods.

atter. Sanitation is the first and most important step in control of filth flies.

Clean cattle pens, drainage areas, loafing sheds, stalls, feeding aprons, spilled feed and other decaying organic matter at 10-day intervals to minimize fly breeding. If this decaying organic matter is spread on fields, spread it thin enough for rapid drying. The material can be spread in the lot and, when dry, incorporated into mounds or low spots within the lot.

Take care to prevent moisture penetration in manure stored for later distribution. The manure stack should be steep-sloped and, if possible, packed. Manure stored in silo-type storage units may crust on the top, but cracks allow flies to deposit eggs in wet material below the crust. Agitating and/or adding water may be necessary (fly larvae are drowned by adding water).

If conditions are too wet to take sanitation measures, insecticides (larvicides) can be used to treat fly-breeding areas. Consider this method a temporary measure since development of fly resistance to insecticides generally accelerates when control of the immature insect is practiced.

If cattle remain in dry lots, only house and blow flies and blood-feeding stable flies will be pests. If cattle go to pasture between milkings, they also may be attacked by horn and face flies (pastures flies). The horn fly is a small, blood-feeding fly that spends all its time on cattle. Face flies feed on animal secretions, primarily around the eyes and nose, but they do not spend much time on cattle.

Both pasture fly species breed in manure in the pasture. The numbers of flies developing in the manure can be decreased by clipping and dragging the pastures.

Insecticides. The best choice of insecticide and application method depends on the cattle management system and the fly species.

Control of filth flies is best achieved with sanitation and a combination of knockdown (also called space and area) sprays and residual sprays.

See EC 1550, Nebraska Management Guide for Arthropod Pests of Livestock and Horses, for specific insecticide information. Many insecticides used for livestock insect control are restricted for use in milking parlors and on lactating dairy cattle. This will be stated on the label and in the restriction section of EC 1550.

Knockdown sprays are applied by a mist blower, fogger or handgun set to deliver a fine mist. These sprays break down rapidly in the environment (1 to 2 hours) and should be applied to areas where flies are concentrated because the insecticide droplets kill flies on contact.

Knockdown sprays may be most efficient when fly activity in the pens is low. During the hot parts of the day both house flies and stable flies rest in trees and other vegetation around the pens. Keeping weeds mowed reduces the amount of shade available and restricts favorable fly habitat.

Knockdown sprays should be used the same day they are mixed because they lose effectiveness over time after being mixed. They should not be applied when air temperatures are below 65 F or above 90 F. Insecticides are not very active at low temperatures and considerable spray is lost to evaporation or inversions at high temperatures.

Residual sprays remain active for several days, and flies resting on a treated surface absorb enough insecticide to destroy them. Apply residual sprays to fly resting surfaces, such as walls and ceilings within the barn (unless prohibited on the label), loafing sheds and other surfaces on the outside of the milking barn. Residual sprays should be applied only to shaded fly resting areas, because ultraviolet light breaks them down if they are exposed to sun. Rain washes the residual sprays off treated surfaces, so they should be reapplied following a rain.

Knockdown and residual sprays can be alternated as needed throughout the fly season. The existing adult population can be reduced with a knockdown spray, and after about one week (time needed for newly emerged females to begin depositing eggs) a residual treatment can be applied.

Residual sprays cannot be used in the milking parlor. Only baits, such as Vapona no-pest strips (dichlorvos), pyrethrin mists and sticky flytraps can be used in the milking parlor.

At some dairies, the waste management (sanitation system) may be excellent except for the calf hutches. These may contribute enough stable and house flies to be an economic problem. Straw mixed with moisture, manure and urine is a very attractive breeding place for flies. Bedding should be removed from the hutches and walkways at least weekly to prevent fly breeding. Residual sprays can be applied to the inside and shady outside walls of the hutches for fly control.

Poison baits can aid in the control of house flies, but baits do not control stable flies or horn flies as they feed only on blood. Baits can be beneficial around calf hutches. Distribute dry baits along walls, window sills or other areas where flies congregate. Keep poison baits away from feed, water and milk. Make light applications and collect dead flies and all bait periodically.

Apply liquid baits to burlap bags, papers or other removable surfaces. After some time passes, organic phosphate insecticides used in liquid baits will decompose and only the sugar or syrup will be left to attract flies. Therefore, remove and replace liquid bait residues regularly. Most dry baits are available as prepared products.

Pasture fly numbers can be reduced with the use of sprays, ear tags, dust bags and oilers. Most ear tags currently registered for use on beef cattle also can be used on dairy cattle. If face flies are on the cattle, two ear tags per animal may be required because face flies concentrate on the face. Best results are achieved when cattle are forced to pass through low-hanging dust bags and oilers so their faces get treated.

None of these control methods are effective for controlling filth flies. House flies may never feed on cattle, and the stable fly feeds mainly on the lower front legs, an area not affected by pasture fly control methods.
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Old 2003-12-03, 23:35
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Panda Panda is offline
Still in a dream...
 
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A question for any UK members here.

Did anyone watch "BODYSNATCHERS" either today or last Monday? Interesting indeed. (About parasites taking over humans, worms growing in our bloodstream and gut... very interesting how they managed to get images of it all. (well, not to much the gut ones, but the bloodstream was amazing..)
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Old 2003-12-04, 19:05
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Bushmeister Bushmeister is offline
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Join Date: Apr 2003
Location: London, UK
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Darek if that interested you I suggest you watch this, similar thing with a more comedic slant:

Futurama-3ACV02 : Parasites Lost

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